Friday, October 13, 2017

The Wild West Show

In the late 1800s, Wild West Shows began traveling the Eastern states (and eventually even reached Europe). They did so for around fifty years, becoming the unofficial national entertainment of the United States from the 1880s to the 1910s. The showmen who created these extravaganzas -- William "Buffalo Bill" Cody, Gordon William "Pawnee Bill" Lillie, "Buckskin Joe" Hoyt, The Miller brothers, and Dr. William F. Carver among others -- made Great Plains imagery their stock-in-trade. They paraded figures like the Plains Indian, the cowboy, and of course, the faithful frontier scout before audiences nostalgic for the passing of the frontier.

These shows "blended myth and reality in a simplified and patriotic fashion that reinforced popular notions about the nation's Manifest Destiny, identity, and gender roles." The typical Wild West Show was a scripted dramatization about "The Winning of the West," with the frontier scout held up as the model of proper American manhood. Showmen like Buffalo Bill and Pawnee Bill dressed in buckskins and portrayed themselves as sure and quick with wit and weapons. Many of the shows avoided the very term for fear that audiences would think their performances fake or exaggerated. Instead, they billed themselves as exhibitions or expositions.
Conquest of the Native American was central to the idea of Westward Expansion idealized in the shows, so Plains Indians were also an integral part of the experience. Buffalo Bill advertised "Come se the horde of war-painted Arapahos, Cheyenne, and Sioux Indians," while Pawnee Bill employed Osages, Pawnees and Kiowas in his shows. These shows depicted the Indians as the antithesis to "civilized" life -- savages from a wild land (but "with a martial spirit that made them worthy adversaries").

Famous warriors became popular attractions in the Wild West Show. Geronimo joined Pawnee Bill's show and was billed as "The Worst Indian That Ever Lived." Buffalo Bill hired Sitting Bull, which led to the Sioux being the most prized tribe featured in the Wild West Shows. Always, the role of the Native American was to attack whites and to be defeated.
The cowboy hero, "perhaps the most recognized icon of the Great Plains," had his beginnings in the Wild West Shows. The shows made the cowboy a salable figure, and gradually, he elbowed aside the scouts and Native Americans to become the hero of the show. It was on the Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Show that Bill Pickett introduced audiences to the art of "bulldogging," and easterner Tom Mix learned the skills that later transferred to Western films.

Wild West Shows not only offered entertainment for the "dudes" back East, but offered what was often the best-paying job around for blacks like Bill Pickett, Mexicans, Native Americans and even women. The heyday of the shows ended in 1913 when Buffalo Bill and Pawnee Bill ended their merged Two Bills Show, though Wild West Shows did continue until the 1930's in combination with circuses and rodeos. Financial problems and the rising popularity of the cinema contributed to the shows' demise.
Here's a list of some of the shows available during the time your character might have encountered one:
§   A Girl of the Plains – Texas Nell – Alkali Pete
§  Allen Bros. Wild West (1929-1934) – Charles and Mert H. Allen
§  Arlington & Beckman’s Oklahoma Ranch Wild West (1913) – Edward Arlington and Fred Beckman
§  A. S. Lewis Big Shows (1910)
§  Austin Bros. 3 Ring Circus and Real Wild West (1945)
§  Barrett Shows and Oklahoma Bill’s Wild West (1920)
§  Bee Ho Gray's Wild West (circa 1919-1932)
§  Booger Red’s Wild West Show (1904-1910)
§  Broncho John, Famous Western Horseman and his Corps of Expert Horsemen (1906) – J. H. Sullivan
§  Bros. Wild West Show (1929-1934) – Charles and Mert H. Allen
§  Buck Jones Wild West Show
§  Buckskin Ben’s Wild West and Dog and Pony Show (1908) Benjamin Stalker
§  Buckskin Bill’s Wild West (1900)
§  Bud Atkinson’s Circus and Wild West (early 1900s) – Toured Australia in 1912
§  California Frank’s All-Star Wild West (1911) – Frank Hafley
§  Cole Younger & Frank James Wild West (1903)
§  Colonel Cummins’ Wild West Indian Congress and Rough Riders of the World – Frederick T. Cummins
§  Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show for Kids
§  Buffalo Bill's Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders
§  Diamond Dick’s Congress of World’s Western Champions
§  Fred Akins Real Wild West and Far East Show (1909-1910)
§  Gene Autry’s Flying A Ranch Stampeed (1942)
§  Hardwick’s “Great Rocky Mountain Wild West Show” (1884)
§  Indian Bill’s Wild West and Mexican Hippodrome (1903)
§  Irwin & Hirsig Wild West (1910)
§  Irwin Brothers Cheyenne Frontier Days Wild West Show (1913-1917)
§  Jones Bros.' Buffalo Ranch Wild West (1910)
§  Kit Carson Buffalo Ranch Wild West Show (1913)
§  L. O. Hillman’s Wild West Aggregation (1900-1920)
§  Luella Forepaugh-Fish Wild West Shows (1903)
§  Miller Bros. 101 Ranch Real Wild West (1907-1916 & 1925-1931)
§  Montana Franks Shows
§  Pate Boone Wild West Show
§  Pawnee Bill's Wild West Show
§  Tex And Mex Wild West
§  Texas Jack's Wild West (1901-1905)
§  Tim’s McCoy’s Real Wild West
§  Wiedemann’s Shows (1906-1911)
§  Wiedemann Bros Shows
§  Wiedemann Bros Big American Show and Custer’s Last Charge
§  Wiedemann’s Kit Carson Show
§  Zach Mulhall’s Congress of Rough Riders and Ropers

J.E.S. Hays

Wild West Shows, S. Matthew DeSpain University of Oklahoma
Rodeos, Wild West Shows, and the Mythic American West, Lumen Learning
Wild West Show List from the International Independent Showmen's Museum

Sunday, October 1, 2017

One-room School House #6
“Spare the Rod, Spoil the Children”  ?????
Letters and Blogs about Disciple in the Old West Schools
By Julie A Hanks, Ph.D  aka Jesse J Elliot

At the end of the article, please sign in and give your opinion on corporal punishment in the classroom!

         As a recently retired educator, I can assure you that corporal punishment was never my way of disciplining, but it was a regular method in the Old West and, unfortunately in some schools today.  I’ve gathered some anecdotes, blogs, and letters about school discipline in the Old West. This collection is interesting on its own, but add in the actual photographs, and well, let’s say, a picture’s worth a thousand words.      

         According to the Pioneer Sholes school blog: Punishment took numerous forms.  Corporal punishment was not unheard of nor was detention, suspension and even expulsion.  Lesser punishments “included such things as a rap on the hands or knuckles with a steel edged ruler; standing in a corner with face to the wall; wearing a dunce cap, facing the room, and sitting upon a high stool beside the teacher's desk; standing for long periods with arms held straight out in front; standing with an arm outstretched, palm up, while holding a heavy book on that hand for a long period; or being banished to the girls' cloakroom (if the culprit were a boy).” Some of these punishments were obviously physically painful while others, like wearing the dunce cap, were humiliating. 
Some teachers were actually provided with a prescribed number of lashes for each offense.  Common schoolhouse crimes and punishments
·       3 lashes - for disrupting the class
·       4 lashes - for being late
·       4 lashes - for boys & girls playing together
·       6 lashes - for "sassing the teacher"
·       7 lashes - for telling lies
·       8 lashes - for swearing
·       10 lashes - for "misbehaving to girls"
·       10 lashes - for playing cards during recess
Kids-n-Cowboys blog       

    The lashes were hard and cruel, strong enough to tear skin and clothing. The punishment of students in public schools didn’t end with the frontier. In 1983 in North Carolina, an honor student decided to skip school for the first time in her educational career. She was caught and had a choice of in-school (away from her classes) suspension or lashes.  She was afraid of missing her calculus class and chose the lashes.  She was beaten so badly that she required medical attention and visits to a psychologist.  When the parents took this to court, they lost.
            Was the administration of the lash ever justified?  Who can answer, but in 1955, Capper’s Farmer sent out a request for letters and information about the topic of discipline in the classroom. One former teacher’s letter was very interesting, though the level of compassion and the degree of pain were obviously different from the 1983 experience the girl suffered.
       Fifty years ago I taught in a one-room country schoolhouse called Diamond. With twenty-four pupils and all eight grades, a teacher needed to be in control. One particular day two of my older boys, Luther and Kermit, tried my patience to the limit. I am not even sure now what the incident was, but I judged I needed respect as well as obedience.
     The boys were instructed to stoop down, put hands on ankles and lean forward. I proceeded to paddle them and when I was through, I sat down and cried with them.
Several years later Kermit enlisted in the Army and wrote me a letter thanking me for my influence on his life. Later he was killed and I felt sad of his death but glad he served his country and I'd been a part of his life.
      The other student is now retired, and at one time we were backyard neighbors. There had been no mention of the paddling until one day I heard him tell his two grandsons, "You'd better be good because that lady was my teacher and she can paddle."
         Recently I met "one of my boys" and gave him a big hug. He, too, knew that discipline was and is necessary. Memories like these make teachers proud.

Euna Vaye Ukena Brant
Hiawatha, Kansas  1905

            When women entered the field of teaching en masse during and after the Civil War, many felt that women were incapable of discipline in their classrooms. Some probably used it as a last resort while others, less competent, may have relied on it—although as a retired teacher, discipline is an art, and many male teachers lack the skills to control their classes as well.

When I think about the variety of learning styles, parental support, and learning disabilities that we have finally identified and recognized, my heart goes out to those children who had to endure some of these horrific experiences because they were unable to grasp concepts, stay still in their seats, or pay attention.  I hope we have come a long way.
So, who is to say?  What do you think?